In general, many cases of infectious virus along with the saliva from scratches bite of an infected animal, there is a high risk even if that licked the mucosal area, such as wound and the eyes, lips. Rabies virus has become all of the infected in a mammal, source of infection most wild animals source of infection other than cats and dogs is a dog to humans, including humans.
Typically, but not be transmitted from person to person, there are cases of infection to a recipient (transplant patients) with corneal transplants or organ transplants.
The incubation period varies greatly by site of the bite. Rabies virus which has entered from the bite is said that several ten millimeters from a few millimeters to the speed of arrival ill to but that infects nerve tissues day via the nervous system. Therefore those who are bitten toes than is bite the face it is possible to make the number of days of treatment after the bite. The more wound close to the brain tissue incubation period is short, about two weeks. A few months or more in the distal portion, there is also a record of two years.
Other symptoms similar to the common cold in the prodromal phase, bite portion of the bite site skin discomfort such as “itching” and “flickering” even though it has already been healed, it is heat sensation Nadogami. Feeling of anxiety in the acute phase, hydrophobia shape (swallowing muscle spasm by swallowing of liquid such as water, to feel a strong pain, symptoms that become extremely afraid of water), Kowa-fu-sho (hypersensitivity to the movement of the wind Symptoms indicating a gesture, such as reaction to avoid in), irritability, paralysis, but appears nervous symptoms such as mental confusion, consciousness because brain cells are not destroyed is the clarity. Also, tendon reflexes, enhanced pupillary (to react sensitively to sunlight, so avoid this) is also seen. Causing the muscles of the cranial nerve and systemic paralysis in 7 days after the two days, to death by respiratory failure.
In addition, typical hydrophobia shape or encephalitis symptoms are not, there is also a case where the transition from the first to the paralysis state. In that case, the diagnosis such as struggling to distinguish from neurological diseases such as viral encephalitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome is extremely difficult. Hydrophobia shape, because it feels the fear even if thirsty in water, animals and human suffering are many.
Diagnostic method detection of viral antigen by “fluorescent antibody (FA) method”, detection of viral genes by “RT-PCR method”, virus isolation, serum reaction is carried out by such as an antibody titer measured by ELISA, infection early antemortem diagnosis difficult.
Excluding the successful cases of experimental treatments, not almost surely leads to death, and established treatment when it is developed without being vaccinated. In October 2004 the remaining survivors to record up to previously only only 5 people, it had been vaccinated before any develop. October 2004, 15-year-old girl there is a case which was restored after the onset of rabies in the United States of America Wisconsin. It is the sixth of cases recovered after the onset, there is also the first survivors who recovered without vaccination. Treatment took place at this time is called the Milwaukee protocol (Milwaukee protocol), actually has several people alive, it has been expected as a therapeutic method, also dead cases is not enough to recover many (this viability be used is about 10%), also is a current situation that sequelae remain such even paralysis as survived, is a research and developing. There is still a case that led to the recovery of what has continued to treatment this treatment by the 10-year-old American girl, also in October 2008, Brazil Pernambuco of 16-year-old boy by the difficulties and speech difficulty walking in recent years .
Along with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) as “the most lethal rate is high disease”, it has been recorded in the Guinness world record.